PEC715 - Pharmacoeconomics

Outline info
Last revision date 2018-07-20 11:48:42.466
Last review date 2018-07-20 11:48:56.589

Subject Title

Subject Description
This subject provides students with an introduction to the use of pharmacoeconomic evaluations in health care. The subject reviews issues and methods of assessing health care technologies and related programs and the key stakeholders who develop, use and interpret the results of these analyses. Techniques used in pharmacoeconomic evaluations are examined. The application of the assessment of health benefits relative to drug costs in the determination of clinical cost-effectiveness is studied to help understand how stakeholders determine the value of new innovative healthcare interventions. Procedures for reporting pharmacoeconomic data and critical appraisal of the pharmacoeconomic literature are also considered.

Credit Status

This is a credit toward the Ontario Graduate Certificate Program in Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs and Quality Operations offered through the School of Biological Sciences and Applied Chemistry and the Faculty of Continuing Education and Training.

Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this subject the student will be able to:

1. Explain the reasons that pharmaceuticals are unique consumer products.
3. Define the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluations and applications and users of pharmacoeconomic evaluations.
3. Describe the distinct responsibilities and roles of the provincial and federal governments with regard to
the regulatory and resource allocation decisions for pharmaceuticals.
4. Interpret the basic economic problem associated with pharmaceutical development as one of choice
since resources are scarce and consumer wants are virtually unlimited.
5.  Describe the relevance of pharmacoeconomics to the pharmaceutical industry, third party payers, and to society.
6. Utilize the Canadian pharmacoeconomic guidelines (remove Ontario)
7. Compare the three major economic evaluation techniques for healthcare programs: cost-effectiveness analysis, cost utility analysis, cost minimization analysis/cost benefit analysis
8. Describe how to obtain clinical and humanistic outcomes data
9. List data sources for costing of pharmaceutical products and health care resources.
10. Differentiate between methodologies utilized to estimate quality of life
11. Critique pharmacoeconomic studies.

Cheating and Plagiarism
Each student should be aware of the College's policy regarding Cheating and Plagiarism. Seneca's Academic Policy will be strictly enforced.

To support academic honesty at Seneca College, all work submitted by students may be reviewed for authenticity and originality, utilizing software tools and third party services. Please visit the Academic Honesty site on for further information regarding cheating and plagiarism policies and procedures.

All students and employees have the right to study and work in an environment that is free from discrimination and/or harassment. Language or activities that defeat this objective violate the College Policy on Discrimination/Harassment and shall not be tolerated. Information and assistance are available from the Student Conduct Office at

Accommodation for Students with Disabilities
The College will provide reasonable accommodation to students with disabilities in order to promote academic success. If you require accommodation, contact the Counselling and Disabilities Services Office at ext. 22900 to initiate the process for documenting, assessing and implementing your individual accommodation needs.





Topic Outline
Introduction to Pharmacoeconomics
The Role of Pharmacoeconomics
Pharmacoeconomics Guidelines
The Common Drug Review
Analytic Techniques and Analytic Approach
Measuring Costs
Measuring Outcomes/Health Benefits
Critical Appraisal and Reporting
Database Search Tutorial
Sensitivity Analyses, Discounting, Transferability and Generalizability
Cost of Illness Studies

Mode of Instruction
Lectures, group discussions and assignments 

Prescribed Texts


Reference Material
Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, 3rd Edition; Drummond MF, O'Brien BJ, Stoddard GL, Sculpher MJ and Torrance GW; Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-852945-7

On reserve at Seneca @ York Learning Commons:
Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine, Gold MR, Siegel JE, Russell LB and Weinstein MC.  Oxford University Press, 1996
Ontario Guidelines for Drug Submission and Evaluation, Ministry of Health, Ontario 1997 

Required Supplies

Promotion Policy

Grading Policy
A+ 90%  to  100%
A 80%  to  89%
B+ 75%  to  79%
B 70%  to  74%
C+ 65%  to  69%
C 60%  to  64%
D+ 55%  to  59%
D 50%  to  54%
F 0%    to  49% (Not a Pass)
EXC Excellent
SAT Satisfactory
UNSAT Unsatisfactory

For further information, see a copy of the Academic Policy, available online ( or at Seneca's Registrar's Offices.

Modes of Evaluation

  • Assignments are due at the beginning of the class on which they are due.
  • A late penalty of 10% per day is assessed for late assignments, including those not handed in at the beginning of class when due.
  • Material will not be accepted after one week following the due date and/or when the marked material is returned to students, whichever comes first.
  • Assignments are to be prepared by computer.

Absenteeism and Exams
  • Students should be aware that absenteeism almost guarantees an inability to achieve satisfactory grades.
  • Students who are absent for an examination due to an emergency (e.g., motor vehicle accident, hospitalization or death in the family) may provide official documentation within five days of the missed exam and be provided a deferred exam at a later date.  Official documentation includes a death notice or an original doctor’s certificate identifying the date, length of time expected absence and the specific reason for the absence.  Examinations missed without official documentation and approval result in a grade of zero.
  • There are no deferred options for missed tests.  The value of missed tests, at the discretion of the Faculty, will be added to other evaluation components

English Proficiency
  • All written work should demonstrate the following characteristics for clarity and conciseness:
-writing is consistent with the rules of English grammar
-spelling and punctuation are correct
-sentences are structured correctly
-main ideas are supported with specific, relevant examples and reasons
-work flows logically through supporting statements/paragraphs
-work is arranged in correct format (e.g., as a report, essay)
-up to 10% of the final grade may be deducted on all work if the above English competencies are not met.

Format for Assignments
  • Students must use the standard, APA style for quoting sources.   Help is available at:

Laboratory Attendance

The laboratory component is essential and therefore it is strongly recommended  that you attend all labs.  Any missed labs must be supported with a legal document with three days of the lab.  Any student who fails to attend 2 scheduled laboratory classes for a 7 week subject and more than 3 laboratory classes for a 14 week subject will not pass the subject.    

Laboratory Safety
Students are required to review and understand the safety procedures and guidelines outlined on the first class and sign the sheet to this effect before beginning work in the laboratory.  Students must also wear a lab coat and safety glasses when conducting experiments.
A student who arrives without the proper safety equipment will not be permitted to participant in the lab but will be asked to leave the class.  The student will receive no grade for the lab missed.

Grading is based on the following marking scheme:

Mid-Term Exam 15%
Class Participation 20%
Assignments (3) 45%
Final Exam 20%

Other Evaluation Considerations
The student is expected to comply with the Safety Rules for working in the laboratory, sign the safety contract, and WILL NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES WEAR CONTACT LENSES in the laboratory.  The student will know where all safety equipment is located in the laboratory and will be familiar with WHMIS concepts and signage.


Approved by: Denis Gravelle