PFT933 - Basic Gas Chromatography

Outline info
Semester
School
Last revision date 2017-05-29 00:41:05.194
Last review date 2017-07-17 00:16:31.647


Subject Title
Basic Gas Chromatography

Subject Description
This subject introduces students to the theory, instrumentation and laboratory procedures necessary to operate a modern, computerized gas chromatography instrument. (Lectures and Labs)

Credit Status
One credit toward the Industrial Pharmaceutical Technology Certificate Program

Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this subject the student will be able to:

1. Demonstrate an understanding of and describe in technical terms the basic concepts of the theory related to gas chromatography.

2. Independently conduct experiments using a modern gas chromatograph, and evaluate chromatographic experimental data.

3. Demonstrate familiarity with quantitative evaluation of the components of a mixture of pharmaceutical or other compounds.

4. Demonstrate familiarity with temperature program gas chromatography.

Cheating and Plagiarism
Each student should be aware of the College's policy regarding Cheating and Plagiarism. Seneca's Academic Policy will be strictly enforced.

To support academic honesty at Seneca College, all work submitted by students may be reviewed for authenticity and originality, utilizing software tools and third party services. Please visit the Academic Honesty site on http://library.senecacollege.ca for further information regarding cheating and plagiarism policies and procedures.

Discrimination/Harassment
All students and employees have the right to study and work in an environment that is free from discrimination and/or harassment. Language or activities that defeat this objective violate the College Policy on Discrimination/Harassment and shall not be tolerated. Information and assistance are available from the Student Conduct Office at student.conduct@senecacollege.ca.

Accommodation for Students with Disabilities
The College will provide reasonable accommodation to students with disabilities in order to promote academic success. If you require accommodation, contact the Counselling and Disabilities Services Office at ext. 22900 to initiate the process for documenting, assessing and implementing your individual accommodation needs.

Prerequisite(s)
None

Topic Outline
7 WEEK DELIVERY MODE
Theory

Introduction to the main principles of gas chromatography - partitioning between two phases, absorption and interaction with surface groups
Introduction to retention time, corrected retention time, base of the peak, area under the peak;  Laboratory Safety and WHMIS overview

Experiment
Introduction to the main parts of a GC instrument: gas cylinder, injection port, column, detector, and integrating recorder or computer displace
Each student will inject his/her first sample and produce a chromatogram.  Identify retention time and area under the peak (%) of the total volume of the sample.

Theory - three hours
Introduction of the Number Theoretical Plates (N) and High Equivalent to the Theoretical Plates (HETP);  Van Deemter equation of the optimization the GC parameters and column efficiency

Experiment - three hours
Determination of the optimum flow rate, the optimum column efficiency, and construction of a Van Deemter plot

Theory - three hours
GC columns,  theory and techniques,  different types of columns, properties, temperature limitations,  liquid phase classification,  solute classification,  choice of liquid phase,  recommended liquid phases by sample type,  column temperature

Experiment - three hours
Separation of a mixture of isometric ketones,  determination of unknown by use of external and internal standards

Theory - three hours
GC Detectors,  Thermo Conductivity Detector (TCD), physical principles of detection of chemical signal, properties, advantages and short comings
Flame Ionizing Detector (FID), properties, advantages
Phosphorus detectors, special detectors,  electron capture detector,  comparison of the properties of the main type detectors

Experiment - three hours
Identification of the components of a pharmaceutical formulation using GC
Identification of the components of a mouth wash

Theory - three hours
Quantitative evaluation of the experimental results,  correction factors, possible sources of error,  calculation of weight % of the compound for TD Detectors,  FID correction factors

Experiment - three hours
One hour of calculation,  temperature programming - one ramp program
Sample-  Heptane, octane and decane

Theory
Temperature programming, a new and effective modification of GC separation technique
One, two and multi ramp programs,  programming initial value, initial time, rate, final value and final time

Experiment - three hours
Temperature programming - creating two and three ramps program,  understanding of multiple sample holders and a cycle for repeating measurements

Evaluation of the two experimental reports.
Comments on the experimental reports.  Overview of the lecture material.

14 WEEK DELIVERY MODE
Theory

Introduction to the main principles of gas chromatography - partitioning between two phases, absorption and interaction with surface groups
Introduction to retention time, corrected retention time, base of the peak, area under the peak;  Laboratory Safety and WHMIS overview

Experiment
Introduction to the main parts of a GC instrument: gas cylinder, injection port, column, detector, and integrating recorder or computer displace
Each student will inject his/her first sample and produce a chromatogram, and  identify retention time and area under the peak (%) of the total volume of the sample.

Theory
Introduction of the Number Theoretical Plates (N) and High Equivalent to the Theoretical Plates (HETP), Van Deemter equation of the optimization the GC parameters and column efficiency

Experiment
Determination of the optimum flow rate, the optimum column efficiency, and construction of a Van Deemter plot

Theory
GC columns,  theory and techniques,  different types of columns, properties, temperature limitations,  liquid phase classification,  solute classification,  choice of liquid phase,  recommended liquid phases by sample type,  column temperature.

Experiment
Separation of a mixture of isometric ketones, determination of unknown by use of external and internal standards

Theory
GC Detectors,  Thermo Conductivity Detector (TCD) physical principles of detection of chemical signal, properties, advantages and short comings
Flame Ionizing Detector (FID), properties, advantages
Phosphorus detectors, special detectors,  electron capture detector,  comparison of the properties of the main type detectors

Experiment
Identification of the components of a pharmaceutical formulation using GC
Identification of the components of a mouth wash

Theory
Quantitative evaluation of the experimental results,  correction factors,  possible sources of error,  calculation of weight % of the compound for TD Detectors,  FID correction factors

Experiment
One hour of calculation,  temperature programming - one ramp program
Sample-  Heptane, octane and decane

Theory
Temperature programming a new and effective modification of GC separation technique
One, two and multi ramp programs,  programming initial value, initial time, rate, final value and final time

Experiment
Temperature programming - creating two and three ramps program  Understanding of multiple sample holders and a cycle for repeating measurements

Evaluation of the two experimental reports.
Comments on the experimental reports,  overview of the lecture material 

Mode of Instruction
Lecture sessions combined with practical demonstrations and experiments, and handouts on basic concepts are provided.

Prescribed Texts
None

Reference Material
Basic Gas Chromatography; Harold M. McNair & James M. Miller; Wiley Interscience; John Wiley & Son Canada, 2nd Edition, 2009 ISBN: 978-0-470-43954-8

Required Supplies
All students must wear a laboratory coat and safety glasses while in the lab.  This requirement is mandatory and consistent with safe practice.  Anyone not having the mandatory requirements will be asked to leave the lab.

Promotion Policy

Grading Policy
A+ 90%  to  100%
A 80%  to  89%
B+ 75%  to  79%
B 70%  to  74%
C+ 65%  to  69%
C 60%  to  64%
D+ 55%  to  59%
D 50%  to  54%
F 0%    to  49% (Not a Pass)
OR
EXC Excellent
SAT Satisfactory
UNSAT Unsatisfactory

For further information, see a copy of the Academic Policy, available online (http://www.senecacollege.ca/academic-policy) or at Seneca's Registrar's Offices.


Modes of Evaluation
Assignments

  • Assignments are due at the beginning of the class on which they are due.
  • A late penalty of 10% per day is assessed for late assignments, including those not handed in at the beginning of class when due.
  • Material will not be accepted after one week following the due date and/or when the marked material is returned to students, whichever comes first.
  • Assignments are to be prepared by computer.

Absenteeism and Exams
  • Students should be aware that absenteeism almost guarantees an inability to achieve satisfactory grades.
  • Students who are absent for an examination due to an emergency (e.g., motor vehicle accident, hospitalization or death in the family) may provide official documentation within five days of the missed exam and be provided a deferred exam at a later date.  Official documentation includes a death notice or an original doctor’s certificate identifying the date, length of time expected absence and the specific reason for the absence.  Examinations missed without official documentation and approval result in a grade of zero.
  • There are no deferred options for missed tests.  The value of missed tests, at the discretion of the Faculty, will be added to other evaluation components

English Proficiency
  • All written work should demonstrate the following characteristics for clarity and conciseness:
-writing is consistent with the rules of English grammar
-spelling and punctuation are correct
-sentences are structured correctly
-main ideas are supported with specific, relevant examples and reasons
-work flows logically through supporting statements/paragraphs
-work is arranged in correct format (e.g., as a report, essay)
-up to 10% of the final grade may be deducted on all work if the above English competencies are not met.

Format for Assignments
  • Students must use the standard, APA style for quoting sources.   Help is available at:  http://library.senecacollege.ca

LAB COURSES
Laboratory Attendance

The laboratory component is essential and therefore it is strongly recommended  that you attend all labs.  Any missed labs must be supported with a legal document with three days of the lab.  Any student who fails to attend 2 scheduled laboratory classes for a 7 week subject and more than 3 laboratory classes for a 14 week subject will not pass the subject.    

Laboratory Safety
Students are required to review and understand the safety procedures and guidelines outlined on the first class and sign the sheet to this effect before beginning work in the laboratory.  Students must also wear a lab coat and safety glasses when conducting experiments.
A student who arrives without the proper safety equipment will not be permitted to participant in the lab but will be asked to leave the class.  The student will receive no grade for the lab missed.

Grading is based on the following marking scheme:
Assignment #1 20%
Assignment #2 20%
Quiz 10%
Experimental Skills 10%
Final Exam 40%

  
Two assignments (experimental reports) each worth 20% of the final mark.  The reports are due on third and fifth week of the subject.
The requirements for the reports are presented in writing at the beginning of the subject.
Final exam is worth 40% of the final mark.
One quiz during the subject is worth 10% of the final evaluation and 10% are reserved to reflect the technical skills of the students.

Other Evaluation Considerations
The student is expected to comply with the Safety Rules for working in the laboratory, sign the safety contract, and WILL NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES WEAR CONTACT LENSES in the laboratory.  The student will know where all safety equipment is located in the laboratory and will be familiar with WHMIS concepts and signage.

PLEASE RETAIN THIS SUBJECT OUTLINE FOR POSSIBLE FUTURE USE IN SUPPORT OF CREDIT APPLICATIONS AT OTHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Approved by: Denis Gravelle